Dr. Lorie Fridell, Associate Professor


Lorie Fridell, former Director of Research at the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF), is a national expert on biased policing.  She has authored and co-authored a number of chapters and books on the topic.  While at PERF she co-authored with colleagues Racially Biased Policing: A Principled Response, which guides law enforcement executives on how to respond to the issues of racially biased policing and the perceptions of its practice.  Concerned about the very high expectations that stakeholders had with regard to the data collected on police stops, she wrote By the Numbers: A Guide for Analyzing Race Data from VehicleStops and the companion book, Understanding Race Data from Vehicle Stops:  A Stakeholders’ Guide.   A chapter (2008) is entitled “Racially Biased Policing:  The Law Enforcement Response to the Implicit Black-Crime Association.” 

After being educated by the social psychologists who study human biases, Dr. Fridell developed the “Fair & Impartial Policing” perspective based on that science.  Dr. Fridell is a keynote speaker at conferences on this important topic and has been invited on a number of occasions to speak to various chiefs/sheriffs associations and police accountability groups around the country and in Canada.   She has trained for and/or consulted with a number of agencies/entities including the Chicago PD, San Francisco PD, Los Angeles PD, Toronto Police Services, Austin PD, Seattle PD, Massachusetts Chiefs Association, Piedmont PD, Oakland PD, Berkeley PD, La Crosse PD, Madison PD, Prince William County PD, Kansas Racial Profiling Task Force, Wisconsin Bureau of Justice Assistance, Institute for Law and Justice, Rhode Island Chiefs’ Association, Wisconsin Chiefs’ Association, and RAND Inc., to name a few.  Her speaking skills are indicated by her five university-level teaching awards. 

With funding from the U.S. Department of Justice and with assistance from national experts on law enforcement and the social psychology of bias, Dr. Fridell has produced science-based Fair & Impartial Policing curriculums for both recruits/patrol officers and first-line supervisors.  She and her colleagues provide “train-the-trainer” programs so that trainers from around the country can learn to implement the recruit/patrol and supervisor programs in their own agencies and/or academies. 

Fridell writings on Fair & Impartial Policing

Chapter:  Racially Biased Policing:  The Law Enforcement Response to the Race-Crime Association (2008) 
This chapter summarizes the research on the race-crime implicit bias and discusses the policy implications for law enforcement agencies. 

Commentary:  Are we all racial profilers? (2009) 
After Professor Gates was arrested by the Cambridge Police in 2009, Dr. Fridell was invited to submit a commentary to the Daily Beast.  

Chapter:  Law Enforcement Agency Responses to Racially Biased Policing and Perceptions of Its Practice(2005) 

Book:  By the Numbers:  A Guide for Analyzing Race Data from Vehicle Stops 
By the Numbers is a comprehensive “how to” guide for analyzing vehicle stop data with a particular focus on the race of the individuals stopped.  This book was funded by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (“COPS Office”). 

  • Book:  Understanding Race Data From Vehicle Stops:  A Stakeholder’s Guide 
    By the Numbers, referenced above, is quite detailed (437 pages) and is targeted toward individuals who will actually be doing the analyses.  This Stakeholder’s Guide summarizes the content in By the Numbers; it is for individuals who will be making policy about data collection and/or assimilating the reports.   This book was funded by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (“COPS Office”). 
  • Book:  Racially Biased Policing: A Principled Response 
    This book contains the original draft of “best practices” for agencies concerned about biased policing.  Elements of it have been transformed and updated into the “comprehensive program to produce fair & impartial policing” which is key content for the command and command/community FIP training.    This book was funded by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (“COPS Office”).

Scott T. Wong, Lieutenant (Ret.)

Scott Wong was hired as a police officer for the City of Palo Alto in 1982, promoting to Agent in 1993, promoting to Sergeant in 1996, and promoting to the rank of Lieutenant in 2009. During his 29 year career, Scott served as a Field Training Officer, Property Crimes Detective, Recruiting Team member, SWAT Team member, Internal Affairs Team member, Secretary and President of the POA, Body Crimes Detective supervisor, Field Training supervisor, Traffic Team supervisor, K-9 Team manager, and founding President of the Palo Alto Police Managers’ Association.  Scott retired in 2011, and is currently working part-time as the Interim Communications Manager for the Palo Alto Police Department 911 dispatch center. 

Tony Raimondo, Deputy Chief

Deputy Chief Anthony (“Tony”) Raimondo is Deputy Chief of the Sanford Police Department.  He brings 21 years of Florida law enforcement service to the Fair & Impartial Policing team.  He has served in numerous supervisory positions within his department including Patrol, Street Crimes, and Narcotics/Vice Unit and he has held administrative leadership positions in Professional Standards, Training, and Tactical Operations.  Captain Raimondo has a MS in Criminal Justice from the University of Central Florida.  He is also a graduate from the F.B.I. National Academy 260th Session and the Command Officers Development Course through the Southern Police Institute, University of Louisville.  Prior to entering law enforcement, Captain Raimondo served nine years in the United States Marine Corps as an infantryman and ANGLICO fire control team member.  He is a veteran of operations in Panama and the Persian Gulf War.  


Clarence T. Hunter Jr, Deputy Chief

Deputy Chief Clarence T. Hunter Jr joined the Henrico County Police Division in July of 1996 as a police officer. Prior to his employment with Henrico County, he served as a police officer with the City of Richmond Police Department for six years.  During his tenure with Henrico County, he has served on the Division SWAT team, Criminal Investigations and Organized Crime Sections. He has also held the role of Commanding Officer for the South Station and Personnel and Training. He is currently assigned as the Deputy Chief of the Patrol Bureau.  Deputy Chief Hunter holds a Bachelor’s degree in Organizational Leadership. He is a graduate of the Administrative Officer Management Course at North Carolina State University, the Police Executive Leadership School at the University of Richmond and the Senior Management Institute for Police, sponsored by the Police Executive Research Forum, in Boston, Massachusetts. Prior to becoming a member of the Police Division, Deputy Chief Hunter served in the United States Army, 82nd Airborne Division and the Virginia Army National Guard retiring at the rank of Master Sergeant in 2004.


Michael Schirling, Chief

Michael Schirling is a former Chief of Police of the Burlington, VT Police Department, a position he held from January of 2008 through June of 2015. During his tenure as Chief he emphasized work in community engagement and police legitimacy, bias-free policing, and enhancements to technology platforms.  During his tenure the Department earned recognition in the form of awards from the International Association of Chiefs of Police for Civil Rights, Excellence in Victim Service, and Community Policing.  The department also received a “Business of the Year” award from the Burlington Business Association. Schirling is an instructor in a number of areas including criminal investigation, interview and interrogation, sexual assault investigation, child abuse investigation, Internet facilitated crime, computer forensics, and community policing.  He is an Executive Fellow for the Police Foundation in Washington DC.  He holds a B.A. in Political Science and a Master’s Degree in Education, both from the University of Vermont.

Brenda Leffler,  Lieutenant Colonel

Lieutenant Colonel Brenda L. Leffler has over twenty years of law enforcement experience with the Colorado State Patrol.  She began her career in 1993 as a road trooper in the Denver metro area and served as an academy instructor and field supervisor early in her tenure. Lieutenant Colonel Leffler was central in the development of the state fusion center, the Colorado Information Analysis Center (CIAC) following the attacks of September 11th.  Most recently, Lieutenant Colonel Leffler serves as a regional commander and supervises two Field Districts, the Criminal Investigations Branch, the Training Services Branch, Internal Affairs and the Strategic Budget Analysis Section. 

Lieutenant Colonel Leffler is a founding member of the Colorado State Patrol’s Women’s Resource Network (WRN) and is a member of the National Association of Women Law Enforcement Executives (NAWLEE). She is also honored to serve as an adjunct instructor for the IACP’s Women’s Leadership Institute (WLI).

Lieutenant Colonel Leffler also serves on multiple several boards and committees, to include the Colorado Special Olympics Executive Committee and the Trooper Taylor Thyfault Foundation Board of Directors. 

Lieutenant Colonel Leffler has an additional ten years of law enforcement experience from her service in the United States military.  Lieutenant Colonel Leffler has a Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice and is a graduate of the 241st Session of the FBI National Academy.

Anna T. Laszlo, Director

Anna T. Laszlo, MA is the Managing Partner of Fair & Impartial Policing, LLC and, with Dr. Fridell, the co-author/developer of the Fair & Impartial Policing training program. She brings more than 36 years’ experience directing national criminal justice and law enforcement training and technical assistance programs funded by the USDOJ and other Federal agencies. In addition to her work with FIP, LLC, she is working with the USDOJ, COPS Office to co-author Practicing Community Policing: A Practitioner’s Toolkit - a series of guides for law enforcement executives, practitioners, and elected officials. She is the co-author of The Collaboration Toolkit: How to Build, Fix and Sustain Effective Law Enforcement Collaborations.

She has conducted more than 1200 training programs for Federal, State, and local law enforcement as well as international training programs for criminal justice professionals. Her training and technical assistance consulting practice includes such clients as the American Bar Association, the National District Attorneys’ Association, American Prosecutor’s Research Institute, Phoenix House, the Center for Law and Justice, University of New Orleans, and the Center for Police Leadership and Training of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) for whom she has designed and is teaching the Women’s Leadership Institute—a new leadership development program for women law enforcement leaders nationally and internationally.  

Her international portfolio includes working with the Moroccan, Haitian, Tunisian, Brazilian, and Egyptian National Police Services, providing strategic planning for police reform and training design.  She has published in academic and professional journals. Her most recent article, addressing the development of the Fair & Impartial Policing Training Program, appears in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Journal—Special Issue: Policing Diverse Communities. She has been an adjunct professor of criminal justice at Buffalo State College, Boston College, and Seattle University. Ms. Laszlo is based in Washington DC.


Sandra C. Brown, Lieutenant (Ret.)

Sandra Brown joined the Palo Alto Police Department in 1988 after serving for five years, with the Santa Clara County Sheriff’s Department.  In Palo Alto, she has worked successfully as a team member in traffic and commercial enforcement; investigations as a sexual assault and burglary investigator; patrol supervisor; and spent a short time as a motor sergeant. Sandra was a Crime Scene Investigator for 10 years, promoting to supervisor of the team which included 18 members. Sandra was assigned to Media Relations in 2006 and served as the Department’s spokesperson promoting to Lieutenant and managed the program as the lead Public Information Officer.  Her last assignment was in charge of the Training and Professional Standards division of the Palo Alto Police Department located in the San Francisco Bay Area. Prior to retiring, she began teaching Fair & Impartial Policing throughout the country  to spread the Fair & Impartial word.  She trains the supervisor, patrol/recruit and TOT versions.

Scott Cunningham, Ph.D.

Scott Cunningham currently serves as the Chief of the Kernersville, NC Police Department.  He was appointed as Chief in June 2013.  Prior to that he served five years as Chief of the Winston-Salem, NC Police Department and for over two years as the Chief of the Cary, NC Police Department.  Chief Cunningham spent most of his professional career with the Tampa, FL Police Department where he retired as Assistant Chief over the Patrol and Special Operations Divisions.  He has served in virtually all areas and ranks of a police agency.  During his tenure, he has implemented numerous programs to enhance community relations, increase community safety, and enhance the overall quality of life.  Chief Cunningham holds a BS from Indiana University, an MPA from Golden Gate University and a Ph.D. in Adult Education and Organizational Management from the University of South Florida.  He frequently authors articles and makes presentations on various topics including accreditation, pursuits, policies, management, leadership, ethics, and human resources.  He is active in the International Association of Chiefs of Police and the NC Association of Chiefs of Police.  He has served on various boards and committees with both groups.  He is an active team leader for the Commission on Accreditation of Law Enforcement Agencies.  Chief Cunningham serves on the NC Criminal Justice Education and Training Standards Commission, the NC Sentencing and Policy Advisory Commission, and the NC Community Corrections Commission.


Mary Hoerig, Inspector

Inspector Mary Hoerig has been a member of the Milwaukee community for over 25 years and an employee with the Milwaukee Police Department since July of 1991. She has served in many areas of the Police Department including patrol officer; Detective in the Criminal Investigation Bureau and Sensitive Crimes Division/Sexual Assault Unit; Lieutenant of Detectives in the Internal Affairs Division/Criminal Investigation Unit; Captain and Deputy Inspector of Professional Performance Division/Office of the Chief; Commander of the Intergovernmental Services, Field Operations and Adjunct to the Administration Chief. 

Inspector Hoerig received her BA in Criminal Justice Management from Concordia University and is also a graduate of the Northwestern University Center for Public Safety (Police Staff and Command) and the Senior Management Institute of Police Masters Studies Program at Marquette University. She is currently attending Alverno College’s Masters of Business program. In addition to serving as a guest instructor for Fox Valley Technical College she also speaks at conferences in and around the state of Wisconsin.  She is professionally affiliated with the Wisconsin Association of Women Police, IACP and the National Association of Women Law Enforcement Executives. Inspector Hoerig also serves on the Board of Directors for the Wisconsin AIDS Fund and the Wisconsin Association of Women Police.


Timothy Leitzke, Lieutenant

Lieutenant Timothy Leitzke is currently assigned as a shift commander for the Fifth District of the Milwaukee Police Department. He has served in numerous roles within his department including Patrol, Criminal Investigations, Internal Affairs and is a Wisconsin Law Enforcement Standards Board certified instructor in Defense and Arrest Tactics, Emergency Vehicle Operations, Professional Communications, Tactical Response and Vehicle Contacts.  Lieutenant Leitzke is a member of MPD’s Crisis Intervention Team, a platoon leader of the Major Incident Response Team and has received multiple awards for Meritorious Service during his career to date.  As a patrol lieutenant, he actively endeavors to apply evidence-based and problem-oriented policing methods to his deployment and response strategies.


Harvey S. Powers, Captain

Captain Harvey S. Powers is a 23 year veteran of the Richmond (Virginia) Police Department. He has served in several capacities in his career, including Officer, Field Training Officer, Public Information Officer, and Detective. He has held the rank of Captain for over seven years, during which time he has been the Night Watch Commander, 2nd Precinct Commander, and he currently serves as the Director of the Richmond Police Training Academy. A graduate of James Madison University, He holds undergraduate degrees in both Psychology and History. In addition to his other responsibilities, he is a regional liaison for the Law Enforcement Torch Run to benefit Special Olympics. He also serves as a Board Member of the Community Services Board for Chesterfield County, Virginia, which oversees mental health services in the region.